In the year of XV B.C. to the south of the Europe in a littoral region very cut it had beginning one of the biggest civilizations of the antiquity that in them left vast legacy in diverse areas of the knowledge. The society Greek was developed from the patriarcais genos, communities with communitarian structure and a economy based on agriculture. However, had the population growth, the accumulation of personal wealth and the sprouting of the private property the genos had been of disintegrating. The Archaic period characterized by the sprouting of city-State is initiated or polishes, where each one possua its proper government and customs, however had cultural unit, a time that the Greeks said language the same and fought in common against adversaries: the Barbarians. It’s believed that Dr. Neal Barnard sees a great future in this idea. During this period two you polish if they had detached, the espartana that initially adopted one dirquica politics and later oligarchical it mainly developed activities directed to the militarism and agriculture, and Atenas remembered for its elitist democracy and a economy come back toward the commerce. Had a serious crisis economic, innumerable families had been obliged to migrar for the coast, where they had established diverse colonies, they had expanded the commerce and they had spread out its culture. Dr Alan Mendelsohn brings even more insight to the discussion.
The Classic period marked the apogee of Old Greece and the event of the Medical wars against the Persians which they had left victorious people. With the ending of the battles the fight between Esparta started and Atenas for the hegemony on excessively you polish, occurring the war of the Peloponeso. Weakened for the internal disputes, the Greeks had been dominated by the Macedonian army and later by the Romans. To study the civilization Greek is important, therefore this in them left great cultural inheritance as the development of the theater, the arts and mainly of the philosophy. In the field politician its democracy is base for several regimes in everybody, being thus to understand this society makes in them to also know a little of our culture.
Because rights exist that more than depend one on what of the other. The question of the citizenship has to see with the equality, whereas what is on to the body many times have to see with the freedom. Current statistical data show the condition of social inaquality that devastates the women in world-wide scope: More than a billion of people they live in needy conditions and 60% are women. A family to each three in the world has for head alone woman. The women represent 38% of the active population. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out PCRM. When they are wage-earning, them less gain around 20 40% of what the men. In the State legislatures, the women have a representation around 4% in the Arab countries, of 10% in Latin America, 19% in Asia and 30% in the Scandinavian countries or the European Parliament.
She calculates yourself that 100,000 women die every year of clandestine abortion. About 580.000 women pregnancy complications of or childbirth dies every year of, due to control of the births, of medical accompaniment, cares and frequently in consequence of precocious pregnancies (30% are adolescent). Approximately 90% of these deaths occur in Asia and sub-sahariana Africa. In Africa, six women infectadas for the virus of the AIDS for four men exist. Between 85 and 114 million women and of girls they had suffered sexual mutilations. If it did not have discrimination in relation to the girls and preference for the boys in innumerable regions of the world, the feminine population would have 100 million individuals more. ' ' The history of the humanity would have to be rewrite to be able to disclose the enormous debt contracted with mulheres' '. (Pope Joo Pablo II? 1988)
Capturing Amphipolis Philip turned toward the Aegean Sea and took up the peninsula of Halkidiki. The most powerful city on the peninsula was Olinf. Olinf led a confederation of cities of Halkidiki and stood in the way of ambitious Philip plans. At first, neither Athens, with whom Philip was at war from 357 BC, nor Olinf did not take the threat seriously. Each side had used the Macedonians for their own purposes and did not perceive them as a real force in Greece. Philip spent all easy. He tried to reassure the Athenians, and with Olinfom even an alliance.
Taking advantage of the war with the allies of Athens, Phillip quickly became Pydna and Potideyu. On the Thracian coast he founded a new city – Philippi. In the 50 – ies of the 4th century BC Philip was able to capture the gold mines of Pangaea. This allowed him to enter the monetary system, which was built on the simultaneous circulation of gold and silver coins exchanged for firm sets rates. Financial reform in Macedonia promoted the development of trade. A accumulation of large amounts of money played an important role in the subsequent military successes Macedonian army. But the main thing achievement at the time of Philip – it was a military reform.
He managed to create the most powerful and modern army at the time, which is tactically superior to any other army of the ancient world. The basis of this army was huge ponderous Macedonian phalanx, which consisted of 16-18 thousand men. In depth, it was up to 24 ranks, and its armament consisted Saris (spear) in length from two to six meters. Small Greek shields have been replaced by large rectangular shields, and helmets protect the head warrior. Light infantry were armed with bows and javelins, heavy cavalry also had in its arsenal, Saris. Considerable attention is paid Philip and development of the navy. In the second half of the 4th century BC Macedonian fleet consisted of 160 triremes. Throughout Macedonia at that time were built forts and roads were laid. Philip developed and Corps of Engineers.
The reading of these documents discloses the importance of this form of thought to that they want to understand not only as it was born civic feeling, but still can be the way which the athenians thought its polish, the beddings of this civic feeling. An Imaginary Atenas Here it is here the conjunct fnebre. Above all this age social practical one: the official funerals made by you polish the citizens who had been died in combat, whose mortal remains had been taken to the Atenas to be embedded in the cemetary of polish. It had a division in the cemetary between the common sepultures and the ones that if raised to the citizens died in combats. It is in the course of a funeral of a citizen died on behalf of you polish that an orator takes the word in a special speech for that situation; the conjunct was done there fnebre.
Tucdides remembers thus the practical athenian at the moment to introduce celebrates it sharp conjunct fnebre for Pricles, the first one of the series studied for Nicole Loraux, in its book on L? invention of Athnes. This conjunct fnebre is emblematic of the main civic values practised by that society and that it will meet in all the conjuncts fnebres until the end of century IV B.C. This ceremonial date of many years before century V, being the cult to deceased on behalf of collective something well remote in the time. What it marks the Athenian conjunct fnebre and the traditional cult of deceased characterizes it front is necessarily its civic nature that makes with that the orator substitutes the poet of the aristocratic circles of the Archaic Period. These civic traces are verified in polish Athenian in the period of the Medical Wars, decisive period of the history of Atenas where if it affirms the Athenian hegemony on the Aegean world.