The Crimean peninsula is not only famous for its magnificent palaces and religious monuments, beaches and beautiful scenery, but also for cave cities. All these cities were abandoned many centuries ago and now is an abandoned and much ruined monuments of architecture and history of many nations. These ruins are hidden in a huge number of historical events mattered the nations are at different periods of time inhabited the territory of the modern Crimea. The most widely known for ten cave towns, for the sake of their visits to come to vacationers from all over the Crimea: Kalamita, Cyuyren, Chufut-Kale, Eski-Kerman, Buckley, Mangup-Kale, Shuldan, Kiz-Kerman, Kachi-Kalion, Chelter-Marmara Chelter-cob, Tepe-Kerman, Kiz-kul. Their main part belongs to the history of the Middle Ages, but there are built over many centuries before this era. For many years historians have discussed and advanced conjectures concerning occurrence of these cities, named after “cave”.
A significant portion of these cities was created fled to the Crimea laymen and monks, who, because of certain circumstances, forced to leave the different provinces of the Roman and Byzantine empires, and found in the Crimea as their new home. Another part of the cave cities was built the population of the Byzantine Empire on the orders of the emperors and a part of the defensive structures, which in the vi and seventh centuries bc Regularly built around Chersonese. Over time, these fortresses increasingly expanded and acquired features of the city. Finally Mangup fortress Kale received status of capital of the principality of Theodoro, and in the fortress Chufut Calais was established residence of the Crimean . In an environment of scientists decided to refer the settlements to the first group (three of them). Another town of this group, worthy of attention – Eski-Kerman, built by the Byzantines to protect their largest port (Hersonissos), the garrison had been recruited from local residents. This city has repeatedly successfully repel the attacks of local tribes and served as a model for protective forts of its period.