Urinary tract infections are the most common diseases in ambulatory and hospital during practice. Urinary tract infection – an inflammation of the urinary tract, usually caused by the introduction of bacteria and other microorganisms that normally live in the intestines. They are called urethritis, if they affect only the urethra – narrow muscular tube that displays the urine from the bladder outside the body, or cystitis, when the infection penetrates into the bladder. But in practice they are almost always referred to as cystitis only because it is almost impossible to determine which part of tract becomes inflamed, and it is not so important, because treatment in both cases the same. But if the infection spread to the kidneys, the disease is already more severe and is called pyelonephritis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are more common in outpatient practice.
These include acute primary cystitis, acute pyelonephritis without breaking the upward passage of urine in females, in some cases – severe primary prostatitis. Patients with these diseases are usually treated on an outpatient basis and does not require hospitalization. Complicated urinary tract infections tend to develop severe septic complications of bacteriuria, sepsis. Complications include infection and nosocomial caused multiresistant species of microorganisms. Along with the presence in these patients of obstructive uropathy or severe concomitant diseases, there are factors that contribute to the onset and progression septic infection. The main causative agents of urinary tract infection: Uncomplicated infection MVP in more than 95% of cases are caused by a bacterium, most often from the family Enterobacteriaceae. The main pathogen is E.coli – 80-90%, much less S.saprophyticus (3-5%), Klebsiella spp., P.mirabilis etc.
In complicated infections of the IMP frequency allocation E.coli is reduced, other more common pathogens – Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., mushrooms (mostly C.albicans). Carbuncle kidney (cortical abscess) in 90% caused by S.aureus. The main pathogens apostematoznogo pyelonephritis, renal abscess localized in the medullary substance is E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. Factors contributing to the development of complicated urinary tract infections: – Diabetes mellitus – Male sex, advanced age – Pregnancy – Recent antibiotic therapy, hospital infection – recent manipulation of the urinary tract; – Permanent urinary catheter – Functional and anatomical abnormalities IMP; Classic symptoms of cystitis:-Burning or pain during urination, cloudy or bloody, urine, sometimes with a sickening odor-urgent need to urinate frequently, even if the amount of urine small;-painful sex. Drugs used to prevent recurrence of urinary tract infection include: Prostaks, Klyukvofit, Nutri FEM, Poligamin, Pro Form, Antilia, AntiEnurez, D-formula.