Secondary pneumonia occurs in the presence of chronic bronchopulmonary diseases or as a complication of other diseases (sepsis, leukemia, trauma, etc.). Pneumonia can have a prolonged duration, which refers to the duration of the disease more than 4 weeks. For more specific information, check out Iridology. Examples of formulations of the diagnosis. 1. Community-acquired pneumonia in the lower lobe of right lung (S9-10) of unknown etiology, easy flow.
2. Community-acquired pneumococcal pleuropneumonia (lobar) of the lower lobe of the left lung, severe course. Infectious-toxic shock syndrome, acute respiratory failure ii Art. 3. Nosocomial staphylococcal bilateral pneumonia in the right upper lobe and left lower lobe with areas of destruction, severe course. Right-sided pleural effusion.
Acute respiratory failure iii Art. 3 – What is the etiology of pneumonia? Proportion of agents of pneumonia vary depending on the conditions of their appearance: off-and nosocomial pneumonia, primary and secondary pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia and immunocompromised patients. In modern conditions to reduce the role of pneumococcus in the emergence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with 70-80% to 30-40%, increased the frequency atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia) remains important in the etiology of pneumonia virus (influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus). One-third of patients with pneumonia set etiology is not possible, etiological structure of community-acquired pneumonia: The pneumococcus (Str, pneumoniae) – 30-40%; Mycoplasma (M. pneumoniae) – 15-20%; Hib (IM influenzae) – 3-10%; Staphylococcus (Staph, aureus, haemolitycus) – 2-5%; influenza virus A (Influenza A virus) – 7%; Chlamydia (C. pneumoniae) – 2-8%; Legionella (L. pneumophila) – 2-10%; Gram-negative flora – 3-10%; do not know – 30%. The spectrum of pathogens causing cap, varies depending on the severity of pneumonia, age of the patients and epidemiological situation. So, Staphylococcus aureus is frequent causative agent of cap in the elderly, drug addicts and patients who abuse alcohol. Increasing the role of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen cap during influenza epidemics, with severe pneumonia. Frequency mycoplasmal and pneumonia in young persons up to 20-30%, and elderly patients, this etiology of cp is found only in 1-9% of cases. Agents of nosocomial pneumonia are the most likely gram bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Klebsiella (Klebsiella pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Proteus (Proteus vulgaris), and Staphylococcus, anaerobes, fungi. In the etiology of secondary pneumonia, developing on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, chronic alcoholism, the leading role played by gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella, Haemophilus influenzae), as well as pneumococcus, staphylococcus, an association of microorganisms. If aspiration pneumonia is usually detected anaerobic infection (Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pentococcus), rarely – Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria, often the association of gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with anaerobic microorganisms. The main causative agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients are pnevmotsista (Pneumocystis ) and cytomegalovirus (60%), as well as fungi and gram-negative bacteria. 4 -. What are the risk factors for pneumonia? Factors the risk of pneumonia are: age (children and the elderly); smoking; chronic lung disease, heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract; immunodeficiency; contact with birds, rodents and other the influence of tobacco smoke. In the occurrence of atypical pneumonia has a value of contact with birds, rodents, Travel (habitat for Legionella may be water in air conditioning systems of hotels). Cooling contributes to damage the mucosal barrier airways. Risk factors of nosocomial pneumonia are staying in resuscitation and intensive care, septic conditions, postoperative period, artificial ventilation, bronchoscopy, etc. There is a high risk of developing pneumonia in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency.